引用本文:袁长忠. 泄漏硫化氢干法应急处置安全性及工艺研究[J]. 石油与天然气化工, 2024, 53(3): 1-7.
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泄漏硫化氢干法应急处置安全性及工艺研究
袁长忠
中国石化胜利油田分公司石油工程技术研究院
摘要:
目的在高含硫油气井和炼化厂脱硫装置生产过程中存在硫化氢(H2S)泄漏的风险,而以物理稀释为主的应急处置方法效率低,影响应急救援。拟采用气体捕集与干法脱硫相结合的工艺进行泄漏H2S的处置,并对泄漏气体中引入空气是否会影响干法脱硫的安全性和脱硫剂的性能开展实验研究。 方法通过模拟泄漏H2S干法处理流程,对比测试了活性炭、氧化铁和氧化锌等不同类型干法脱硫剂的穿透硫容和床层温升,优选出性能更好的脱硫剂。以优选脱硫剂为研究对象,考查在不同H2S含量的条件下,空速和空气含量对其温升、穿透硫容、脱硫精度和副反应的影响。 结果从8种不同厂家提供的氧化铁脱硫剂中优选出穿透硫容最高的3#脱硫剂,在原粒度模拟工况条件下,其穿透硫容可达到18.2%;脱硫剂床层温升随着H2S含量的增加而升高,随着空速和空气含量的增大,脱硫剂床层温升呈现先迅速升高后趋于平稳甚至略有下降的趋势,最高不超过40 ℃;当空气体积分数超过25%时,脱硫剂穿透硫容提高约50%,空速与穿透硫容呈明显负相关性;当空速低于1 000 h-1时,穿透硫容超过25%,空气含量对脱硫精度和副反应无影响;在H2S穿透前和空速低于2 000 h-1的条件下,没有生成副产物二氧化硫(SO2)。 结论采用干法脱硫工艺对泄漏H2S进行处理,会同时发生脱硫和再生过程,床层会产生一定的温升,没有生成副产物SO2,具有较高的安全性。空气的加入提升了脱硫剂的硫容性能,在对泄漏H2S进行干法应急处置时空气体积分数应大于25%,空速应低于1 000 h-1。 
关键词:  硫化氢泄漏  应急处置  干法脱硫  温升  安全性  二氧化硫 
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1007-3426.2024.03.001
分类号:
基金项目:中石化科技攻关项目“高含硫油藏开发安全保障关键技术研究”(321034)
Study on safety and process of dry method emergency disposal of leaked hydrogen sulfide
YUAN Changzhong
Petroleum Engineering Technology Research Institute of Shengli Oilfield Company, Sinopec, Dongying, Shandong, China
Abstract:
ObjectiveThere is a risk of hydrogen sulfide(H2S) leakage in the production process of high-sulfur oil and gas wells and desulfurization units in refineries, and the efficiency of emergency disposal method mainly based on physical dilution is low, which will affect the emergency rescue. A combined process of gas capture and dry desulfurization is proposed to dispose the leaked hydrogen sulfide, and whether the introduction of air in the leaked gas will affect the safety of dry desulfurization and the performance of desulfurizers is studied. Methods By simulating the dry treatment process of leaked hydrogen sulfide, the sulfur capacity and bed temperature rise of different types of dry desulfurizers such as activated carbon, iron oxide, and zinc oxide were compared and tested, and the desulfurizer with better performance was selected. Taking the optimized desulfurizer as the research object, the effects of space velocity and air content on temperature rise, penetration sulfur capacity, desulfurization accuracy, and side reactions were investigated under different H2S content. ResultsThe 3# desulfurizer with the highest penetration sulfur capacity was selected from 8 kinds of iron oxide desulfurizers from different manufacturers. Under the simulated operating conditions of the original particle size, the penetration sulfur capacity could reach 18.2%. The rise in desulfurizer bed temperature increased with increased hydrogen sulfide content. With the increase of space velocity and air content, it increased rapidly and then tended to be stable or even slightly decreased, and the maximum temperature rise did not exceed 40 ℃. When the air volume fraction exceeded 25%, the sulfur capacity of the desulfurizer increased by about 50%, and there was a significant negative correlation between space velocity and penetration sulfur capacity. When the space velocity was lower than 1 000 h-1, the penetration sulfur capacity exceeded 25%. The desulfurization accuracy and side reactions were not affected by the air content. There was no by-product of sulfur dioxide generating before the penetration of hydrogen sulfide and at a space velocity below 2 000 h-1. ConclusionsUsing a dry desulfurization process to treat leaked hydrogen sulfide would result in simultaneous desulfurization and regeneration processes, with a specific temperature rise in the bed layer and no by-product of sulfur dioxide generating, which had high safety. The addition of air had a specific improvement effect on the penetration sulfur capacity of desulfurizer. When the air volume fraction was greater than 25%, and the space velocity was lower than 1 000 h-1, it was suitable for dry method emergency response of leaked hydrogen sulfide.
Key words:  hydrogen sulfide leakage  emergency response  dry desulfurization  temperature rise  safety  sulfur dioxide